string sprintf(string format , [mixed arg1 [, mixed arg2 [ ,...]]]);
The placeholders in the format string are marked by “%” and are followed by one or more of these elements, in this order:
- An optional “+” sign that forces to preceed the result with a plus or minus sign on numeric values. By default, only the “-” sign is used on negative numbers.
- An optional padding specifier that says what character to use for padding (if specified). Possible values are 0 or any other character precedeed by a ‘. The default is to pad with spaces.
- An optional “-” sign, that causes sprintf to left-align the result of this placeholder. The default is to right-align the result.
- An optional number, that says how many characters the result should have. If the value to be returned is shorter than this number, the result will be padded.
- An optional precision modifier, consisting of a “.” (dot) followed by a number, that says how many digits should be displayed for floating point numbers. When used on a string, it causes the result to be truncated.
- A type specifier that can be any of:
- % — print a literal “%” character
- b — print an integer as a binary number
- c — print an integer as the character with that ASCII value
- d — print an integer as a signed decimal number
- e — print a float as scientific notation
- u — print an integer as an unsigned decimal number
- f — print a float as is
- o — print an integer as an octal number
- s — print a string as is
- x — print an integer as a hexadecimal number (lower-case)
- X — print an integer as a hexadecimal number (upper-case)